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Also known as:
CA-125/ Ovarian Cancer Marker,CA-125 Blood Test (Ovarian Cancer),Cancer antigen 125,CA-125 tumor marker
Also known as:
CA 19.9 ,CA 19-9 Blood Test (Pancreatic Cancer) ,CA 19-9 blood test ,Cancer antigen 19-9
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the prostate gland. Blood PSA levels are often elevated in people with prostate cancer. PSA testing, along with a Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), is often used by healthcare providers to examine the prostate in case of any medical irregularities. Also, it can be used for patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment as well as any recurring cancer growth.
You may get tested for PSA if you notice the following symptoms: Frequent urination, mainly during the night, Discomfort or burning sensation during urination, Urinary hesitancy, Blood in urine or semen, Stiffness or pain in the lower back, hips, pelvis, rectum or thighs.
The test requires an intravenous blood sample; no specific preparation is necessary before sample collection.
If PSA levels indicate a possible risk of prostate cancer, the doctor recommends testing for other biomarkers that can help diagnose prostate cancer: Human kallikrein-related peptidase 2, Prostate cancer antigen 3, ProPSA, TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion
The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland located deep inside the groin between the base of the penis and the rectum. The gland is important for reproduction because it produces and transports semen - seminal fluid that carries sperms. Prostate cancer often starts in the peripheral zone, i.e., near the rectum. Hence, DRE is a common screening test, in addition to PSA blood test, in which a doctor examines the prostate gland by inserting a gloved finger in the rectum.
The prostate-specific antigens can either bind to another protein (total PSA) or float freely in the blood without having bound to any different protein (Free PSA).
Elevated PSA results may reveal any medical irregularities with the prostate gland or the presence of metastatic cancer, which is likely to spread to other parts of the body. A PSA test may help catch cancer before it becomes life-threatening or causes serious symptoms. Thus, reducing the risk of certain side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence.
Below are factors that can affect the PSA level in the blood: Prostate infection or inflammation or surgery, Urinary tract infections, Vigorous exercise, Anal sex and prostate stimulation, such as during sexual intercourse,Medications, such as the ones used to treat an enlarged prostate gland, Urinary catheters